Alexander Hamilton, Trusts and Estates Attorney: Part 2

In June 1801, Hamilton was summoned to the deathbed of Robert Richard Randall who resided in a mansion and farm called Minto.  Minto Farm, located at Broadway between Eighth and Tenth Street in what is now Greenwich Village, sat on 21 acres with a mansion and other buildings.  Hamilton had once owned part of the property in partnership with John Jay and Isaac Roosevelt before selling the parcel to Baron Poellitz in 1787. In 1790 Robert Randall had purchased the farm and mansion formerly owned by the British Andrew Eliot, Collector of the Port, from Anne Stuart, baronne  von Poellnitz, the wife of Frederick Charles Hans Bruno, baron von Poellnitz.  Hamilton had also been involved in the sale and purchase of the property by Randall because he managed the Poellnitz’s affairs in the United States.

Hamilton was counsel to Randall’s sister Catharine Brewerton, and it is likely through that relation that he was asked by Robert to draft his Will.   In addition, Randall knew that Hamilton shared his philanthropic vision for the support of aging sailors.   George Washington, Hamilton, and Randall were all members of the very prestigious Marine Society.  Hamilton, John Marshall (who would become Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and who would play a part later in this story), and Leonard Lispenard (a wealthy merchant and large landowner of what is now TriBeCa, and commemorated by street names for both his first and last names) all served as presidents of the Marine Society that had been founded by Robert’s father, Captain Thomas Randall.

Captain Thomas Randall had made his fortune as a privateer (or buccaneer), a private person authorized by a government to attack and plunder enemy ships during wartime.  Thomas Randall had been a part owner of “La Jeune Babe” from 1773-1776 with Stephen Girard, who personally saved the U.S. Government from financial collapse during the War of 1812 and one of the wealthiest people at the time. Thomas Randall died in 1797 after a long maritime, governmental (he was Vice-Consul to China), and philanthropic career.  He had been the founder of the Marine Society in New York for the relief of sailors and their families.  Upon his death, his fortune was distributed in large part to his three children:  Paul R. Randall, Catharine Brewerton, and Robert Richard Randall.

It came as no surprise to Hamilton then that Robert Randall chose to leave his fortune in trust for the purpose of maintaining and supporting aging sailors.  But what Hamilton did next was pure genius:  he drafted a perpetual testamentary charitable trust that would be made viable by an act of the state legislature, thereby creating a road map for the legislature to transfer property for charitable purposes without the use of confiscation or eminent domain.  In addition, this Will provision established the private right of an individual to transfer property to a charitable corporation.  The charity would be created for the benevolent purpose of supporting fifty or more aging sailors from the proceeds of the rents from the residuary estate.   Here is the genius clause in its entirety:

“Sixthly.  As to and concerning all the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate, both real and personal, I give, devise, and bequeath the same unto the Chancellor of the State of New- York, the Mayor and Recorder of the city of New- York, the President of the Chamber of Commerce in the city of New- York, the President and Vice President of the Marine Society of the city of New-York, the senior Minister of the Episcopal Church in the said city, and the senior Minister of the Presbyterian Church in the said city ; to have and to hold, all and singular the said rest, residue, and remainder of my said real and personal estate, unto them, the said Chancellor of the State of New- York, Mayor of the city of New- York, the Recorder of the city of New-York, the President of the Chamber of Commerce, President and Vice President of the Marine Society, senior Minister of the Episcopal Church, and senior Minister of the Presbyterian Church in the said city, for the time being, and their respective successors in the said offices, forever, to, for, and upon the uses, trusts, intents, and purposes, and subject to the direction and appointments hereinafter mentioned, and declared concerning the same ; that is to say, out of the rents, issues and profits of the said rest, residue, and remainder of my said real and personal estate, to erect and build upon some eligible part of the land upon which I now reside, an Asylum, or Marine Hospital, to be called ” The Sailors’ Snug Harbor,” for the purpose of maintaining and supporting aged, decrepit, and worn-out sailors, as soon as they, my said charity Trustees, or a majority of them, shall judge the proceeds of the said estate will support fifty of the said sailors, and upwards. And I do hereby direct, that the income of the said real and personal estate, given as aforesaid to my said charity Trustees, shall forever hereafter be used and applied for supporting the Asylum or Marine Hospital hereby directed to be built, and for maintaining sailors of the above description therein, in such manner as the said Trustees, or a majority of them, may, from time to time, or their successors in office may, from time to time, direct. And it is my intention, that the institution hereby directed and created, should be perpetual, and that the above mentioned officers for the time being, and their successors, should forever continue and be the governors thereof, and have the superintendence of the same : and it is my will and desire, that if it cannot legally be done, according to my above intention, by them, without an act of the Legislature, it is my will and desire that they will, as soon as possible, apply for an act of the Legislature to incorporate them for the purposes above specified. And I do further declare it to be (my) will and intention, that the said rest, residue, and remainder of my real and personal estate should be, at all events, applied for the uses and purposes above set forth ; and that it is my desire, all courts of law and equity will so construe this, my said Will, as to have the said estate appropriated to the above uses, and that the same should, in no case, for want of legal form or otherwise, be so construed, as that my relations, or any other persons, should heir, possess, or enjoy my property, except in the manner and for the uses herein above specified. And, lastly, I do nominate and appoint the Chancellor of the State of New- York for the time being, at the time of my decease, the Mayor of the city of New York for the time being, the Recorder of the city of New- York for the time being, the President of the Chamber of Commerce for the time being, the President and Vice President of the Marine Society of the city of New-York for the time being, the senior Minister of the Episcopal Church in the city of New- York, and the senior Minister of the Presbyterian Church in the said city, for the time being, and their successors in office after them, to be the executors of this my last Will and Testament.”

Within five years after the death of Robert Randall, the New York legislature, on the application of the trustees who were also the executors of the Will, passed a law that constituted the persons holding the offices named in the Will and their successors as a corporation by the name of “The Trustees of the Sailor’s Snug Harbor” so that they could execute the trust in the Will.

Of course, this novel clause would not go without legal challenge, one that would reach the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Inglis v. Trustees of Sailor’s Snug Harbor, 28 U.S. 99 (1830).  That case and its aftermath will be the subject of Part Three of this story.  Stay tuned!

#AlexanderHamilton #Hamilton #SailorsSnugHarbor

Alexander Hamilton, Trusts and Estate Attorney: Part 1

When we think of Alexander Hamilton, we think of him as George Washington’s aide-de-camp, as the writer of the majority of the Federalist Papers, as this country’s first Secretary of the Treasury, and the founder of the New York Post. Less well known is Hamilton’s career as an attorney and the lasting impact that he had as a practicing lawyer, a practicing estates lawyer.

After leaving public service, Hamilton established his law practice in New York. Well-known for his pro bono work with destitute women and orphans, Hamilton was also an astute corporate and trusts and estates attorney. Because of his brilliance in these domains, he wrote a Last Will and Testament that not only created the wealthiest and most successful charitable bequest in New York history, the Sailors’ Snug Harbor for aging sailors, but the trust he created would later establish the right of the State to create corporations in response to charitable bequests in Wills. An ardent advocate of individual property rights, Hamilton drafted a Will that not only withstood legislative debate but also a legal challenge by an heir of the testator that would end up in the US Supreme Court.

What made this trust and estates practice unique was that Hamilton was carving out new legal ground when it came to estates. Prior to the revolution, all lands had been the property of the Crown. The original grantee would then sell off parcels of land under his original grant. The Treaty of Paris (1783) that ended the Revolutionary War also put an end of any residuary rights held by the Crown, but this only meant that a landowner in the United States no longer had any allegiance to the British Crown. Land ownership per se was not addressed by the Treaty.

During the colonial period in New York City, the merchant class under both the Dutch and the English held land by occupying it and forcibly holding it. Some of the large estates were owned by Loyalists (or Tories) who remained loyal to the British Crown during the Revolution. After the Revolution, under the leadership of New York’s first governor (and future vice president under both Thomas Jefferson and James Madison) George Clinton, the legislature passed three laws that effectively confiscated the property of the former Loyalists and forfeited their rights to their land: the Confiscation Act (1779), the Citation Act (1782), and the Trespass Act (1783). Hamilton opposed these laws as flouting fundamental democratic property rights, and he defended Loyalists against these takings by the State. All the while, he was looking for a way to the State to legitimately transfer land without the use of confiscation or eminent domain. The opportunity presented itself with the drafting of the Last Will and Testament of Robert Richard Randall.

The story will continue in Part 2 of this story…

The Presumption of Due Execution:The Importance of an Attorney-supervised Will Execution Ceremony

In a contested probate proceeding, proponents of the Last Will and Testament being offered for probate must submit evidence establishing a prima facie case for probate.  Those who object to the probate must raise a material issue of fact.  One such challenge concerns the due execution of the Will.

These days, there are any number of websites that can be used to create generic Last Wills and Testaments.   While these options may seem more cost-effective than hiring an attorney to draft a Will, in the end they may prove to be very costly options, especially in those cases where there is a Will contest.  In addition to not having the benefit of the advice of an attorney knowledgeable in New York’s Estates, Powers, and Trusts Law for the preparation of this very important document, a person availing himself/herself of these low-cost options also deprives himself/herself of something invaluable:  the presumption of due execution.

How does this work in practice?  When an attorney drafts a Will, s/he will then arrange for a Will execution ceremony with the testator and the attesting witnesses present.  The attorney not only supervises the Will execution, but explains the legal significance ceremony to the attesting witnesses and asks the testator certain questions in front of the witnesses to ascertain certain facts being attested to by the witnesses and to establish the publication requirement.  Where the execution ceremony of a Will is supervised by the attorney who drafted the Will, the presumption of due execution exists.

The presumption of due execution creates a significant deterrent to someone who contest a Will offered to probate. In Matter of Leach, 3 AD3d 763, 764 (2004), the testator had a brother with whom he was not close.  The testator, perhaps anticipating a Will contest, hired an attorney to draft his Will. As part of his regular preparation for the drafting and execution of a Will, the attorney whom the testator retained gathered information about  the testator’s family, his assets, and how he wanted to dispose of those assets

When the testator died and his Will was offered for probate, his brother contested the probate alleging, among other things, a lack of due execution.   Both witnesses, the attorney who drafted the Will, and his secretary were deposed.  The attorney testified as to as to his usual routine for the preparation and execution of a Will, and to the facts and circumstances surrounding the execution of the Will.  The Surrogate’s Court of Chenango County admitted the Will to probate, and the brother appealed.

The Appellate Division, Third Department, affirmed the Surrogate’s Court’s ruling because, among other things, the petitioner had met her burden of proof of due execution;  “When an attorney drafts a will and supervises its execution, a presumption of regularity is raised that the will was properly executed.”   Because the Will had been drafted by the attorney who then supervised its execution, the presumption of due execution existed and the petition was able to meet her burden of proof on the issue of due execution.  The burden of proof then shifted to the respondent to produce admissible evidence creating a triable issue of fact.  Arguments are not enough to meet this burden of proof.

Will contests are an expensive proposition for those offering a Will to probate.  When a Will is not prepared by an attorney and that attorney does not supervise its execution, then that Will does not carry with it the presumption of due execution.  Hiring an attorney to draft this exceedingly important document may just be the wisest expenditure that you can make.  You will ensure that those left behind have the the presumption of due execution in their arsenal should they need to defend your Last Will and Testament.